SUST 4096 Internship

Sustainability models


Presentation and body language

Tutorial: Design and deliver effective presentations

Design and deliver effective presentations tutorial. Self-paced.

After completing this tutorial, you will be able to:

  • Identify the audience and core concept for your presentation topic
  • Create an engaging presentation
  • Understand and apply sound design principles
  • Find and reserve practice spaces across campus

Presentation practice & recording

What is reflective practice?

Reflective practice happens when you explore an experience you have had to identify what happened, and what your role in this experience was – including your behaviour and thinking, and related emotions. This allows you to identify changes to your approach for similar future events. If reflective practice is performed comprehensively and honestly, it will lead to improved performance.

Other authors have described it as follows:

  • "Process of internally examining and exploring an issue of concern, triggered by an experience, which creates and clarifies meaning in terms of self and which results in a changed conceptual perspective" (Boyd and Fales, 1983, p.100).
  • "...requires you to stand back, to consciously analyse your decision making processes, drawing on theory and applying it again in practice" (CSP, Information paper 31, 2005).
  • "Professional activity in which the practitioner thinks critically about their practice and as a result may modify their action or behaviour and/or modify their learning needs" (CSP, Information paper 31, 2005).
  • "The way in which an individual develops a repertoire of knowledge and ability, which can be drawn upon in future situations" (Schon, 1983).

Gibbs' Reflective Practice Cycle

Gibbs model of reflecting practice

Description Describe in detail the event you are reflecting on. Include e.g. where were you; who else was there; why were you there; what were you doing; what were other people doing; what was the context of the event; what happened; what was your part in this; what parts did the other people play; what was the result.

Feelings At this stage try to recall and explore the things that were going on inside your head, i.e. why does this event stick in your mind? Include e.g. how you were feeling when the event started; what you were thinking about at the time; how did it make you feel; how did other people make you feel; how did you feel about the outcome of the event; what do you think about it now.

Evaluation Try to evaluate or make a judgement about what has happened. Consider what was good about the experience and what was bad about the experience or didn’t go so well

Analysis Break the event down into its component parts so they can be explored separately. You may need to ask more detailed questions about the answers to the last stage. Include e.g. what went well; what did you do well; what did others do well; what went wrong or did not turn out how it should have done; in what way did you or others contribute to this.

Conclusion This differs from the evaluation stage in that now you have explored the issue from different angles and have a lot of information on which to base your judgment. It is here that you are likely to develop insight into you own and other people’s behaviour in terms of how they contributed to the outcome of the event. Remember the purpose of reflection is to learn from an experience. Without detailed analysis and honest exploration that occurs during all the previous stages, it is unlikely that all aspects of the event will be taken into account and therefore valuable opportunities for learning can be missed. During this stage you should ask yourself what you could have done differently.

Action Plan During this stage you should think yourself forward into encountering the event again and to plan what you would do – would you act differently or would you be likely to do the same? What can you do in the interim to improve your practice/ ability to respond effectively in like situations? Here the cycle is tentatively completed and suggests that should the event occur again it will be the focus of another reflective cycle.


Cycle originally appears in Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by doing: a guide to teaching and learning methods. London: Further Education Unit.

Text from Jasper, M. (2003). Beginning Reflective Practice – Foundations in Nursing and Health Care. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.

This section from La Trobe University LibGuide

Reflective writing

Guidelines for keeping a reflective diary/journal & writing up critical reflective incidents

  • Keep a journal of experiences over the year.

  • Write up the journal entry/incident.

  • Below the entry write up your reflections / analysis notes of the situation.

  • Write up experiences the same day if possible.

  • Use actual dialogue wherever possible to capture the situation.

  • Make a habit of writing up at least one experience per work day/shift.

  • Balance problematic experiences with satisfying experience.

  • Challenge yourself at least once a day about something that you normally do without thought / take for granted.

  • Ask yourself 'why do I do that?'  (i.e. make the normal problematic)

  • Always endeavor to be open and honest with yourself - find the authentic 'you' to do the writing.

Ask yourself these questions: 

  • What did I learn from the situation? 

  • In what way has it assisted my learning to be a health practitioner? 

  • Could the situation have been better managed?

Johns (1992) & Carper (1978) in P. Palmer, S. Burns and C. Bulman, C.,  Reflective practice in nursing (1994). London. Blackwell Scientific Publications. p. 112.

Further reading

Tutorial: What are citations?

What are citations? tutorial. Self-paced.
After completing this tutorial, you will be able to:
  • Understand what citations are
  • Recognize why they are important
  • Create and use citations in your papers and other scholarly work

What is a citation manager?

A citation manager is a software tool used to create personalized databases of citation information and notes. They allow you to:

  • import and organize citation information from article indexes and other sources,
  • export your citations into Word documents or other types of publications,
  • format citations for your papers and bibliographies using APA and many other styles, and
  • include your own notes.

Choosing a citation manager

Citation managers

Feature Zotero Mendeley (not recommended) EndNote 20 EndNote Online
Cost Free Free Price options Free
Styles Many citation styles Many citation styles Many citation styles Fewer citation styles
Plug-ins Microsoft Word, Google Docs Microsoft Word (not compatible with UMN Office 365) Microsoft Word Microsoft Word
Access Desktop/Web Desktop/Web Desktop/Web Web
Storage 300MB free 2GB free Unlimited 2GB free
PDF reader yes yes yes no
Editor integration Word, Google Docs Word Word Word
Sharing Unlimited Limited Unlimited Limited
Support Zotero support Mendeley support EndNote 20 support EndNote Online support
Last Updated: Jan 26, 2024 12:53 PM