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Archives and Special Collections on Women in Computing

This list describes archival collections related to women in computing and gender discrimination in the high-tech industry.

Introduction

This list describes archival collections related to the lived experience of women in the computing and computer science fields. Topics include gender discrimination, employment types and opportunities, and personal experiences. The Archives and Special Collections department of the University of Minnesota Libraries is located in the Elmer L. Andersen Library on the West Bank of campus; these collections are open to the public and can be viewed, by appointment, in the reading room.

For more information about visiting the Elmer L. Andersen Library, or to search other archival collections, visit lib.umn.edu/special. Please explore the links below for further contact information for various collections.

General Resources

Gender Codes: Why Woman are Leaving Computing
Book about gender and sexism in the computing industry
Cite:  Misa, Thomas J, and Misa, Professor Thomas J. Gender Codes. 1st ed. Hoboken: Wiley, 2010.

Jean E. Sammet 1928--2017
In Memoriam or Jean Sammet, a crucial figure in the history of computing.
Cite: Fisher, Lawrence. "Jean E. Sammet 1928--2017." Communications of the ACM 60, no. 7 (2017): 22.

Grace Hopper: Compilers and COBOL
Article on Grace Hopper's contributions to the development of COBOL.
Cite: Strawn, George, and Strawn, Candace. "Grace Hopper: Compilers and Cobol." IT Professional 17, no. 1 (2015): 62-64.

Remembering Grace Murray Hopper
Article commemorating Grace Hopper's life and contributions to computing
Cite: Burk, Robin. "Remembering Grace Murray Hopper (1906–1986)." Phalanx 50, no. 2 (2017): 63-68. Accessed July 14, 2020.

Jean Sammet: Programming Language Contributor and Historian, and ACM President
Article on Jean Sammet and her role as a programmer and an important person in the ACM
Cite: Bergin, Thomas J. "Jean Sammet: Programming Language Contributor and Historian, and ACM President." IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 31, no. 1 (2009): 76-85.

Building Otherwise
Book chapter about feminism and computing.
Cite: Flanders, Julia. "Building Otherwise." In Bodies of Information, 289. University of Minnesota Press, 2019.

Programming for Change? The Growing Demand for Women Systems Analysts
Book chapter on the growing demand for women in computing and technology.
Cite: Donato, Katharine M. “8 Programming for Change?: The Growing Demand for Women Systems Analysts.” In Job Queues, Gender Queues: Explaining Women’s Inroads into Male Occupations, 167–82, 1990.

Software's Founding Mother
Article on Grace Hopper's revolutionary role in computing.
Cite: Abbate, Janet, and Abbate, Janet. "Software’s Founding Mother." Metascience 20, no. 1 (2011): 215-18.

Pioneering Women in Computer Science
Article on how women have built and contributed to the field of computer science.
Cite: Gürer, Denise. "Pioneering Women in Computer Science." SIGCSE Bulletin 34, no. 2 (2002): 175-80.

Burst the Bubble - Women's Voices in Tech's History
Website about how women have been involved in the development of tech over time.
Cite: Garrison, Simiyha, and Nick Williams. “Burst the Bubble - Women’s Voices in Tech’s History,” n.d.

Women in Computing
Article from the ACM about women in computing.
Cite: Pearl, Amy. "Women in Computing." Communications of the ACM 38, no. 1 (1995): 26-28.

Basic Elements of COBOL 61
Jean Sammet's assessment of COBOL.
Cite: Sammet, Jean. "Basic Elements of COBOL 61." Communications of the ACM 5, no. 5 (1962): 237-53.

Farewell to Grace Hopper - End of an Era!
An obituary from Jean Sammet for Grace Hopper
Cite: Sammet, Jean. "Farewell to Grace Hopper-end of an Era." Communications of the ACM 35, no. 4 (1992): 128-31.

The Underrepresentation of Women in Computing Fields
Article about the overwhelming presence of men in computing, and how it makes the field unwelcoming towards women.
Cite: Main, Joyce B, and Schimpf, Corey. "The Underrepresentation of Women in Computing Fields: A Synthesis of Literature Using a Life Course Perspective." IEEE Transactions on Education 60, no. 4 (2017): 296-304.

Women and Gender in the History of Computing
Article about how gender is intertwined with the general history of computing
Cite: Abbate, J. "Women and Gender in the History of Computing." IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 25, no. 4 (2003): 4-8.

Attracting and Retaining Women in Computing
Article about potential tactics to bring more women into computing fields.
Cite: DuBow, Wendy. "Attracting and Retaining Women in Computing." Computer (Long Beach, Calif.) 47, no. 10 (2014): 90-93.

Recoding Gender
Article on how the participation of women in computing is increasing and changing.
Cite: Vitores, Anna. "Janet Abbate (2012), Recoding Gender: Women's Changing Participation in Computing." Revista Internacional De Sociología 71, no. 3 (2013): 703-08.

Computer Girls, Dinner Planning, and My Miracle Machines [My First Job]
Article on a woman's experience in computing, and how she got involved.
Cite: Land, Susan K. "Computer Girls, Dinner Planning, and My Miracle Machines [My First Job]." IEEE Potentials 33, no. 3 (2014): 42-44.

Recognizing a Collective Inheritance Through the History of Women in Computing
Article on how to understand the history of women in computing and how it applies today.
Cite: Smith, Erika E. "Recognizing a Collective Inheritance through the History of Women in Computing." CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 15, no. 1 (2013): 10.

Bringing Young Women into Computing Through the NCWIT Aspirations in Computing Program
Article on a program that could be effective in bringing more women into the computing field.
DuBow, Wendy, Farmer, Ruthe, Wu, Zhen, and Fredrickson, Malia. "Bringing Young Women into Computing through the NCWIT Aspirations in Computing Program." Communications of the ACM 56, no. 12 (2013): 34-37.

The Secret History of Women in Computing     
Article that reveals a critical lens of computing history and gender.
Thompson, Clive. "The Secret History of Women In Coding.(Magazine Desk)." The New York times Magazine, 2019, 38-6.

Women and Underrepresented Minorities in Computing
Book on the lack of diversity in computing industries.
Cite: Aspray, William. Women and Underrepresented Minorities in Computing : A Historical and Social Study. History of Computing (London, England). Switzerland: Springer, 2016.

The Spitting Image of a Woman Programmer
Article about what it is like for a woman in programming.
Cite: Vogel, William. ""The Spitting Image of a Woman Programmer:" Changing Portrayals of Women in the American Computing Industry, 1958-1985." IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 2017, 1.

The Underrepresentation of Women in Computing Fields
Article on the lack of women in computing and the impact of this.
Cite: Main, Joyce B, and Schimpf, Corey. "The Underrepresentation of Women in Computing Fields: A Synthesis of Literature Using a Life Course Perspective." IEEE Transactions on Education 60, no. 4 (2017): 296-304.

Girls Coming to Tech!
Book on the history of women in American engineering fields and how it is today.
Cite: Bix, Amy Sue, and Thomas J. Misa. Girls Coming to Tech! : A History of American Engineering Education for Women. Engineering Studies Series. Cambridge, Massachusetts ; London, England: MIT Press, 2013.

Programmed Inequality
Article on the lack of credit given to women in technology.
Cite: Abbate, Janet. "Programmed Inequality: How Britain Discarded Women Technologists and Lost Its Edge in Computing by Marie Hicks (review)." IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 39, no. 4 (2017): 9-10.

Ada Lovelace: The Making of a Computer Scientist
Book on Ada Lovelace and her importance to the history of science and programming.
Cite: Hollings, Christopher, Ursula Martin, and Adrian C. Rice. Ada Lovelace : The Making of a Computer Scientist. Oxford: Bodleian Library, 2018.

Not Even Well Begun
Article on women in computer courses and other STEM courses.
Cite: J. Kay, J. Lublin, G. Poiner, and M. Prosser. "Not Even Well Begun: Women in Computing Courses." Higher Education 18, no. 5 (1989): 511-27.

The History and Philosophy of Women in Science
Article on the history of women in science and how STEM fields are today for women.
Cite: Schiebinger, Londa. "The History and Philosophy of Women in Science." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 12 (1987): 305.

Archival Resources - Charles Babbage Institute Archives

Oral History Interview with Gayle Spiess
Interview with a woman involved in the computing field.
Cite:  Spiess, Gayle. "Oral History Interview with Gayle Spiess." 2015.

Oral History Interview with Luanne Johnson
Interview with a woman involved in the computing field.
Cite: Johnson, Luanne. "Oral History Interview with Luanne Johnson." 2008.

Association for Women in Computing
Archives from Twin Cities Association for Women in Computing
Cite: Association for Women in Computing. Twin Cities Chapter. Association for Women in Computing, Twin Cities Chapter Records, 1980-2000., 1980.