Music Citation Guide (Chicago Style)

How to think about materials on microfilm

Items on microfilm can be published or unpublished. Sometimes materials available on microfilm are composers' handwritten (and unpublished) manuscripts, but microfilms can also include published - but fragile or rare - books, libretti, and scores, newspaper articles or dissertations that haven't been digitized, and many other types of research materials.

When deciding how to cite sources found on microfilm:

  • Always check the beginning and the end of the microfilm's contents for publication information. If it's a published document, use the examples on the relevant tabs of this guide to format your citation.
  • If there's no publication information included, use the examples on the "Unpublished materials" tab.

If you're not sure how to handle a citation for something on microfilm, contact Jessica Abbazio, Music Librarian, at for help!

Last Updated: Dec 18, 2023 4:57 PM