What kind of examples are included on this page?

As you scroll, you'll find footnote and bibliography entry templates and examples of citations for real sources for the following types of encyclopedia and dictionary entries:

  • Digital entries from Oxford Music Online/Grove Music Online
  • Print entries from The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians
  • Digital entries from The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online
  • Print entries from The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music

Some notes about citing encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other tertiary sources

Encyclopedias, dictionaries, and reference sources are called tertiary sources. Based on the information from primary sources (scores, recordings, letters, etc.) and secondary sources (journal articles, books on individual topics), these types of reference sources provide indisputable background information - for example, that Bach was born in 1685 and died in 1750. Tertiary sources index, synthesize, or summarize information, and are intended for a broad audience who are unfamiliar with the topic.

Exploring tertiary sources like encyclopedias and dictionaries will give you a feel for your topic and their bibliographies can lead you to other useful sources, but most of the time you shouldn't cite them in your research papers. If they include information you can't find anywhere else, however, you may need to - and in those cases, follow the formatting examples below.

 

Each encyclopedia and dictionary will have its own quirks, but most should align with one of the examples below. If you have questions or need help with formatting a footnote or bibliography entry for an encyclopedia or dictionary, contact Jessica Abbazio, Music Librarian, at jabbazio@umn.edu.

Oxford Music Online/The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians

Digital Grove/Oxford Music Online Entries
 

Footnotes:

Footnote template: 12. Author First Name Last Name, “Entry Title,” in Grove Music Online, ed. Deane Root, accessed Month Day, Year, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com. [Arrows point to individual elements of the template, accompanied by notes that read: "Author(s) of the entry," "Entry title," "Title of resource - Grove Music Online - within the Oxford Music Online database," "Editor of Grove Music Online," "Date YOU opened and read the entry," and "Shortened URL -  if you add the longer version from your browser’s address bar, a reader who’s not affiliated with the same institution as you and can’t access the same library subscription may not be able to access it."]

Example of a real footnote: 12. John Daverio and Eric Sams, “Schumann, Robert,” in Grove Music Online, ed. Deane Root, accessed October 31, 2018, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com. [The example is accompanied by an note that reads: "NOTE: This entry has two authors - and in footnotes, list them both First Name Last Name, separated by “and”  For examples of how to list author names when an entry has more than two authors, see the “Book with two or three authors” and “Book with four or more authors” on the “Books” tab of this guide!"]

 

Bibliography entries: 

Bibliography entry template: Author Last Name, First Name. “Entry Title.” In Grove Music Online, edited by Deane Root. Accessed Month Day, Year. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com. [Arrows point to individual elements of the template and are accompanied by notes that read: "AuthorEntry title(s) of the entry," "Entry title," "Title of resource - Grove Music Online - within the Oxford Music Online database," "Editor of Grove Music Online," "Date YOU opened and read the entry," and "Shortened URL -  if you add the longer version from your browser’s address bar, a reader who’s not affiliated with the same institution as you and can’t access the same library subscription may not be able to access it."]

Example of a real bibliography entry: Daverio, John, and Eric Sams. “Schumann, Robert.” In Grove Music Online, edited by Deane Root. Accessed October 31, 2018. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com. [An arrow points to the names of the entry and is accompanied by a note that reads: "NOTE: This entry has two authors - and in bibliography entries, list the as follows:   Author 1 Last Name, First Name Last Name, and Author 2 First Name Last Name  For examples of how to list author names when an entry has more than two authors, see the “Book with two or three authors” and “Book with four or more authors” on the “Books” tab of this guide!"]




Print Grove Entries
 

Footnotes:

Footnote template: 1. Author First Name Last Name, “Entry Title,” in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, eds. Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan, 2001), Volume #: Page Number. [Arrows point to individual elements of the template and are accompanied by notes that read: "Author(s) of the entry - appears at the end of the entry," "Entry title," "Title of encyclopedia set as a whole," "Editors of entire set of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians," "List the VOLUME in which the entry you’re citing appears in Roman numerals," and "List the PAGE of  the information you’re citing in Arabic numerals"]

Example of a real footnote: 1. Nicholas Temperley, “Atwood, Thomas,” in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, eds. Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan, 2001), ii: 151.

 

Bibliography entries: 

Bibliography entry template: Author Last Name, First Name. “Entry Title.” In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians,  	edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan, 2001. Volume #: Starting Page Number of the Entry-Ending Page Number of the Entry. [Arrows point to individual elements of the template and are accompanied by notes that read: "Author(s) of the entry - appears at the end of the entry," "Entry title," "Title of encyclopedia set as a whole," "Editors of entire set of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians," "List the VOLUME in which the entry you’re citing appears in Roman numerals," and "List the STARTING AND ENDING PAGE NUMBERS of  the entry you’re citing in Arabic numerals"]

Example of a real bibliography entry: Temperley, Nicholas. “Atwood, Thomas.” In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan, 2001. ii: 150-152.

The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music

Notes:

  • The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online is not truly an online database - this digital resource is simply a scanned version of the print version of the Garland. This means that citations for the digital and print versions are very similar.
     
  • This resource isn't set up like most encyclopedias and dictionaries, which are alphabetical by topic. The Garland is divided by volumes with correspond with different regions of the world, and they read more like a textbook with in-depth articles about various musical traditions, instruments, and figures. Each volume of the Garland is numbered and has a different editor, so check the information in the search results for that person’s name to include in your citation (along with the name of the entry's author).

 

Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online Entries
 

Footnotes:

Footnote template: 7. Author First Name Last Name, “Entry Title,” in The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online,  vol. #, Subtitle of Volume, ed. Editor First Name Last Name, accessed Month Day, Year, https://search.alexanderstreet.com/glnd.

Example of a real footnote: 7. Steven Cornelius, “Afro-Cuban Music,” in The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online, vol. 3, The United States and Canada, ed. Ellen Koskoff, accessed June 8, 2020, https://search.alexanderstreet.com/glnd.

 

Bibliography entries: 

Bibliography entry template: Author Last Name, First Name. “Entry Title.” In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online. Vol. #, 	Subtitle of Volume, edited by First Name Last Name. Accessed Month Day, Year. https://search.alexanderstreet.com/glnd.

Example of a real bibliography entry: Cornelius, Steven. “Afro-Cuban Music.” In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online. Vol. 3, 	The United States and Canada, edited by Ellen Koskoff. Accessed June 8, 2020. https://search.alexanderstreet.com/glnd.


 

Print Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Entries

Footnotes:

Footnote template: 10. Author First Name Last Name, “Entry Title,” in The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online, vol. #, Subtitle of Volume, ed. Editor First Name Last Name (City of Publication, State or Country: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication), Page Number.

Example of a real footnote: 10. Barbara B. Smith, “The Music and Dance of Micronesia,” in The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online, vol. 9, Australia and the Pacific Islands, eds. Adrienne L. Kaeppler and J.W. Love (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1998), 738.

 

Bibliography entries: 

Bibliography entry template: Author Last Name, First Name. “Entry Title.” In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online. Vol. #, 	Subtitle of Volume, edited by First Name Last Name, Starting Page Number of the Entry You’re  	Citing-Ending Page Number of the Entry You’re Citing. City of Publication, State or Country: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication. [Accompanying the template is a note that reads: "NOTE: Citing an individual entry/section rather than the volume as a whole shows your reader exactly what entry/section is most relevant to your research/argument"]

Example of a real bibliography entry: Smith, Barbara B. “The Music and Dance of Micronesia.” In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music  	Online. Vol. 9, Australia and the Pacific Islands, edited by Adrienne L. Kaeppler and J.W. Love, 738-747. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1998.

Last Updated: May 12, 2021 4:04 PM