What kind of examples are included on this page?

As you scroll, you'll find footnote and bibliography entry templates and examples of citations for real sources for the following types of scores:

  • Print score: Single composer
  • Vocal score
  • Reprint score
  • Digital score: Something that was originally in print but has been made available digitally (e.g. items on IMSLP or in a library database like Classical Scores Library)
  • Digital Score: A born-digital score (something that was created as a digital score and never available in print)
  • Part of a score (e.g. individual Lied in a set, introduction to a score by an author who isn't the composer, etc.)
  • Introduction or other text-based section of a score

Print score: Single composer

Print score single composer footnotes:

Footnote template: 34. Composer First Name Last Name, Score Title, ed. or arr. First Name Last Name if Applicable (City of Publication, State or Country: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication), Page Number, m. Measure Number if Applicable.

Example of a real footnote: 34. Gabriela Lena Frank, Leyendas: An Andean Walkabout (New York: G. Schirmer, 2005), 3.   	4. Charles Ives, Twelve Easy Songs: For High Voice and Piano, ed. Neely Bruce and James B. Sinclair (New York: Peermusic Classical, 2019), 12-13.

 

Print score single composer bibliography entries:

Bibliography entry template: Composer Last Name, First Name. Score Title. Edited or Arranged by First Name Last Name if Applicable. City of Publication, State or Country: Publisher Name, Year of Publication.

Example of a real bibliography entry: Frank, Gabriela Lena. Leyendas: An Andean Walkabout. New York: G. Schirmer, 2005.  Ives, Charles. Twelve Easy Songs: For High Voice and Piano. Edited by Neely Bruce and James B. Sinclair. New York: Peermusic Classical, 2019.

Vocal score

Vocal score footnotes:

Footnote template: 2. Composer First Name Last Name, Score Title, ed. or arr. by First Name Last Name if Applicable,  vocal score (City of Publication, State or Country: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication), Page Number, m. Measure Number if Applicable. [accompanying the template is an arrow pointing toward the section reading "vocal score" and a note reading "It can be really helpful for your reader to know what type of score you’re referencing, so including the designation “vocal score” can help with distinguishing between a full score and a reduction!"]

Example of a real footnote: 2. W.A. Mozart, Don Giovanni, English version by W.H. Auden and Chester Kallman, vocal score (New York: G. Schirmer, 1961), 8.


 

Vocal score bibliography entries:

Bibliography entry template: Composer Last Name, First Name. Score Title. Edited or Arranged by First Name Last Name if 	Applicable. Vocal score. City of Publication, State or Country: Publisher Name, Year of Publication.

Example of a real bibliography entry: Mozart, W.A. Don Giovanni. English version by W.H. Auden and Chester Kallman. Vocal score. New York: G. Schirmer, 1961.

Reprint score

Reprint score footnotes:

Footnote template: 17. Composer First Name Last Name, Score Title (Original Score Title if Applicable, Original City of Publication, State or Country if Applicable: Name of Original Publisher if Applicable, Original Year of Publication; repr. New City of Publication, State or Country: Name of New Publisher, New Year of Publication), Page Number, m. Measure Number if Applicable.

Example of a real footnote: 17. Gustav Mahler, Symphony No. 9 in Full Score (Neunte Symphonie von Gustav Mahler, Partitur, Vienna: Universal-Edition, 1912; repr. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1993), 1, m. 9.   	24. Joseph Haydn, Symphony #71 (London: Cianchettini and Sperati, 1807; repr. New York: Da Capo Press, 1967), 14.


 

Reprint score bibliography entries: 

Bibliography entry template: Composer Last Name, First Name. Score Title. Original Score Title if Applicable. Original City of Publication, State or Country if Applicable: Name of Original Publisher if Applicable, Original Year of Publication.  	Reprint, New City of Publication, State or Country: Name of New  Publisher, New Year of Publication.

Example of a real bibliography entry: Mahler, Gustav. Symphony No. 9 in Full Score. Neunte Symphonie von Gustav Mahler, Partitur. Vienna: Universal-Edition, 1912. Reprint, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1993.   Haydn, Joseph. Symphony #71. London: Cianchettini and Sperati, 1807. Reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1967.

Digital score: Something that was originally in print but has been made available digitally (e.g. items on IMSLP or in a library database like Classical Scores Library)

Digital score that was originally in print and scanned to be made available digitally footnotes:

Footnote template: 2. Composer First Name Last Name, Score Title, ed. Editor First Name Last Name if Applicable (City of Publication, State or Country: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication), access date, Database Name and/or URL, Page Number, m. Measure Number if Applicable. [An arrow points towards the section of the template reading "Page Number" and is accompanied by a note that says: "IMPORTANT NOTE: If your PDF includes page numbers as they were printed in the original - and they may not start at page #1! - cite the page number as it appears in the score, NOT the page number within the PDF file. PDF versions of items that originally existed in print were made from the print publication, and your reader might have access to the original and will need the page number to find the piece of information you’re referencing. Also, another PDF may have different page numbers!"]

Examples of a real bibliography entry: Example 1: 2. Franz Schubert, Winterreise, ed. Max Friedlaender (Leipzig: Edition Peters, n.d.), accessed March 20 2020, http://ks4.imslp.net/files/imglnks/usimg/9/92/IMSLP00414-Schubert_-_Winterreise.pdf, 54, m. 8. [An arrow points toward the city of publication and is accompanied by a note that reads "This is a well-known city, so no need to include the name of the country; but if you’re not sure, or there are two cities with the same name, include the state or country name to avoid confusion!" A second arrow points toward the date section of the example and reads: "This score didn’t include a date, so “n.d.” stands for “no date” - always try to include the date if possible!"] Example 2: 31. Franz Schubert, Winterreise (Leipzig: Breitkopf and Härtel, 1897), accessed March 20, 2020,  Classical Scores Library, 2, m. 8. [An arrow points toward the name of the database in the example and accompanied by a note that reads "Unlike materials that are openly accessible on the internet and available to anyone without a login, scores from Libraries databases are behind a paywall. If you see a very long URL in your browser’s address bar that includes the text “ezp1.lib.umn.edu,” then anyone who doesn’t have a UMN username and password won’t be able to access it via a link. In those cases, it’s okay to just include the name of the database (in this case, Classical Scores Library)."]

 


Digital score that was originally in print and scanned to be made available digitally bibliography entries:

Bibliography entry template: Composer Last Name, First Name. Score Title. Edited by Editor First Name Last Name if Applicable. City of  	Publication, State or Country: Publisher Name, Year of Publication. Access Date. Database Name and/or URL.

Example of a real bibliography entry: Example 1: Schubert, Franz. Winterreise. Edited by Max Friedlaender. Leipzig: Edition Peters, n.d. Accessed March 20, 	2020. http://ks4.imslp.net/files/imglnks/usimg/9/92/IMSLP00414-Schubert_-_Winterreise.pdf.   Example 2: Schubert, Franz. Winterreise. Leipzig: Breitkopf and Härtel, 1897. Accessed March 20, 2020. Classical Scores Library.

Digital Score: A born-digital score (something that was created as a digital score and never available in print)

Born-digital score footnotes:

Footnote template: 76. Composer First Name Last Name, Score Title, in Database Name, ed. Editor First Name Last Name if Applicable, access date, URL if Available, Page Number, m. Measure Number if Applicable.

Example of a real footnote: 76. Fanny Mendelssohn, Trio for Violin, Violoncello, and Piano, Op. 11, in A-R Music Anthology, ed. James L. Zychowicz, accessed October 14, 2020, www.armusicanthology.com, 2, m. 12.

 

Born-digital score bibliography entries:

Bibliography entry template: Composer Last Name, First Name. Score Title. In Database Name. Edited by Editor First Name Last Name if Applicable. Access Date. URL if available.

Example of a real bibliography entry: Mendelssohn, Fanny. Trio for Violin, Violoncello, and Piano, Op. 11. In A-R Music Anthology. Edited by James L. Zychowicz. Accessed October 14, 2020. www.armusicanthology.com.

Part of a score (e.g. individual Lied in a set, introduction to a score by an author who isn't the composer, etc.)

Part of a score footnotes:

Footnote template: Example 1 - From a single-volume publication (no volume number): 1. Composer First Name Last Name, “Song/Lied/Movement Title,” in Score Title, ed. Editor First Name Last Name if applicable (City of Publication, State or Country: Publisher Name, Year of Publication), Page Number, m. Measure Number if Applicable.   Example 2 - From a multivolume set:  6. Composer First Name Last Name, “Song/Lied/Movement Title,” in Score Title, vol. #, ed. Editor First Name Last Name if Applicable (City of Publication, State or Country: Publisher Name, Year of Publication), Page Number, m. Measure Number if Applicable.

Example of a real footnote: Example 1 - From a single-volume publication (no volume number): 1. George Gershwin, “I Got Rhythm,” in Gershwin at the Keyboard: 16 Song Hits Arranged by the Composer for Piano (New York: New World Music Corp., 1930), 12, mm. 1-4.   Example 2 - From a multivolume set:  6. Richard Strauss, “Morgen!,” in Lieder: Gesamtausgabe, vol. I, ed. Franz Trenner (London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1964), 143.

 

Part of a score bibliography entries:

Bibliography entry template: Example 1 - From a single-volume publication (no volume number): Composer Last Name, First Name. “Song/Lied/Movement Title.” In Score Title, edited by Editor First Name Last Name, Song/Lied/Movement Starting Page Number-Song/Lied/Movement Ending Page Number. City of Publication, State or Country: Publisher Name, Year of Publication.  Example 2 - From a multivolume set: Composer Last Name, First Name. “Song/Lied/Movement Title.” In Score Title. Vol. #, edited by Editor First Name Last Name, Song/Lied/Movement Starting Page Number-Song/Lied/Movement Ending Page Number. City of Publication, State or Country: Publisher Name, Year of Publication.

Example of a real bibliography entry: Example 1 - From a single-volume publication (no volume number): Gershwin, George. “I Got Rhythm.” In Gershwin at the Keyboard: 16 Song Hits Arranged by the Composer for 	Piano, 12-15. New York: New World Music Corp., 1930.  Example 2 - From a multivolume set: Strauss, Richard. “Morgen!” In Lieder: Gesamtausgabe. Vol. I, edited by Franz Trenner, 143-44. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1964.

Introduction or other text-based section of a score

Introduction or other text-based section of a score footnotes:

Footnote template: 13. Author First Name Last Name, “Introduction Title,” in Score Title, comp. Composer First Name Last Name, ed. Editor First Name Last Name if Applicable and Different from the Author of the Introduction (City of Publication, State or Country: Publisher Name, Year of Publication), Page Number.

Example of a real footnote: 13. Bettina Schwemer and Douglas Woodfull-Harris, “Preface,” in 6 Suites a Violoncello Solo senza Basso, BWV 1007-1012, comp. J.S. Bach (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2018), vi. [An arrow points toward the page number section of the example with an accompanying note that reads: "The page numbers for introductory material like prefaces and forwards are often notated in Roman numerals; if that’s the case, retain that formatting and DON’T translate the numbers to Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.)!"]

 

Introduction or other text-based section of a score footnotes:

Bibliography entry template: Author Last Name, First Name. “Introduction Title.” In Score Title, composed by Composer First Name Last 	Name, edited by Editor First Name Last Name if Applicable and Different from the Author of the  	Introduction, Introduction Starting Page Number-Introduction Ending Page Number. City of Publication, State or Country: Publisher Name, Year of Publication.

Example of a real bibliography entry: Schwemer, Bettina, and Douglas Woodfull-Harris. “Preface.” In 6 Suites a Violoncello Solo senza Basso, BWV 1007-1012, composed by J.S. Bach, vi-vii. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2018.

Last Updated: May 12, 2021 4:04 PM