What kind of examples are included on this page?

As you scroll, you'll find footnote and bibliography entry templates and examples of citations for real sources for the following types of videos:

  • Streaming video: Subscription Platforms (Met Opera on Demand, Netflix, etc.)
  • Streaming video: YouTube
  • Physical video: DVD
  • Physical video: VHS (coming soon!)
  • Physical video: Reel-to-reel (coming soon!)

Some tips for citing video recordings

  • Formatting citations for recordings can involve making a lot of decisions - is the director, the conductor, or the performer(s) more important to your argument? You can choose to list whichever person (performer, composer, conductor, performing ensemble, etc.) that's the most relevant to your argument as the "author" of the recording.
     
  • Sometimes it’s not clear who the “publisher” or distributor of a film is.
     
  • Always include the format (streaming video, DVD, VHS etc.) of the recording you're citing in your footnotes and bibliography entries.
     
  • Unlike citations for print items like books and scores, recordings may not include information about the city of publication; if you don't find one, you can leave this out.
     
  • Include as much information as you can to be sure your reader can identify the item you’re citing, and be consistent.
     
  • If you have questions or need help, email Jessica Abbazio, Music Librarian, at jabbazio@umn.edu!

Streaming video: Subscription platforms (Met Opera on Demand, Netflix, etc.)

Streaming video: Subscription platforms (Met Opera on Demand, Netflix, etc.) footnotes:


 

Streaming video: Subscription platforms (Met Opera on Demand, Netflix, etc.) bibliography entries:


 

Streaming video: YouTube

Tips for citing YouTube videos:

  • It can be unclear who created content that’s been posted on YouTube, so the key is to give your reader as much detail as you can about the item itself (which might include doing additional research)

  • Once you’ve listed all the information you can about the item, fill in the details that will help people access it on YouTube. Especially important is the URL, and you can access a shortened version of this link by clicking the "Share" button under the video player:

    An image of the YouTube player with the "Share" button circled.
     

  • The details of your citation will vary depending on the type of source, and the same pieces of information might not be available for every type of video so ask for help if you need it!

 

Streaming video: YouTube footnotes:

Footnote template: 1. Author First Name Last Name, “Title,” YouTube video, Hrs:Mins:Secs, https://youtu.be/XXXXXXXXXX. [Arrows point to individual elements of the footnote with notes that read: "Author of the video - this could be the featured performer, group, etc."; "Video title in quotations"; "No italics for “YouTube video”"; "Video  duration"; and "Shortened URL (you can get this  by clicking “Share” under the video in youtube)"]
 

Example of a real footnote: 1. Jimi Hendrix, “Little Wing (Live),” YouTube video, 3:52, https://youtu.be/0YDBdoWK2qU.  7. Green Day, “iHeartRadio Album Release Party w/ Green Day,” streamed live on February 7, 2020, YouTube video, 1:35:26, https://youtu.be/hhY-7wtIICY. [Arrows point to individual elements of the second example, accompanied by notes that read: "Author (group name)"; "Entire video title in quotations"; "If it was streamed live, include that here"; "Video duration (hours:minutes:seconds)"; and "Shortened URL"]

 

Streaming video: YouTube bibliography entries:

Bibliography entry template: Author Last Name, First Name. “Title.” YouTube video, Hrs:Mins:Secs. https://youtu.be/XXXXXXXXXX. [Arrows point to individual elements of the template, accompanied by notes that read: "Author of the video - this could be the featured performer, group, etc."; "Video title in quotations"; "No italics for “YouTube video”"; "Video duration"; and "Shortened URL (you can get this  by clicking “Share” under the video in youtube)"]


Example of a real bibliography entry: Hendrix, Jimi. “Little Wing (Live).” YouTube video, 3:52. https://youtu.be/0YDBdoWK2qU.   Green Day. “iHeartRadio Album Release Party w/ Green Day.” Streamed live on February 7, 2020. YouTube video, 1:35:26. https://youtu.be/hhY-7wtIICY.

Physical video: DVD

Physical video: DVD footnotes:

Footnote template: 2. Composer/Director/Main Type of Contributor First Name Last Name, Title, Other Contributors’ First Names Last Names (City of Publication if Listed on Item: Name of Publisher/Production Company, Year of Publication), Format of Film, Number of min.


Example of a real footnote: 2. Giacomo Puccini, Madama Butterfly, conducted by Herbert von Karajan, directed by Jean-Pierre Ponnelle, performed by Mirella Freni, Plácido Domingo, Christa Ludwig, Robert Kerns, Michel Sénéchal, Giorgio Stendoro, Marius Rintzler, Elke Schary, et al. (Hamburg: Deutsche Grammophon, 2005), DVD, 145 min. [An arrow points to the section of the example that reads "et al.,: accompanied by a note that reads: "NOTE: et al. just means “and others” - I’ve just listed the primary performers here, but there are plenty of others I didn’t list. This is a way to make sure the list doesn’t get too long and make your citation incomprehensible!"]

 

Physical video: DVD bibliography entries:

Bibliography entry template: Composer/Director/Main Type of Contributor Last Name, First Name. Title. Other Contributors’ First Names 	Last Names. City of Publication if Listed on Item: Name of Publisher/Production Company, Year of Publication. Format of Film, Number of min.

Example of a real bibliography entry: Puccini, Giacomo. Madama Butterfly. Herbert von Karajan, conductor. Jean-Pierre Ponnelle, director.  	With Mirella Freni, Plácido Domingo, Christa Ludwig, Robert Kerns, Michel Sénéchal, Giorgio Stendoro,  	Marius Rintzler, Elke Schary, et al. Hamburg: Deutsche Grammophon, 2005. DVD, 145 min.

Last Updated: May 12, 2021 4:04 PM