What kind of examples are included on this page?

As you scroll, you'll find footnote and bibliography entry templates and examples of citations for real sources for the following types of audio recordings:

  • Streaming audio (Libraries databases like Naxos Music Library, tracks streamed through Spotify)
  • Physical media (CDs, LP records, cassettes)

Some tips for citing audio recordings

  • Formatting citations for recordings can involve making a lot of decisions - is the composer or the performer more important to your argument? Is it more crucial for your reader to know about an individual track on the recording or for them to see a citation for the recording as a whole? You can choose to list whichever person (performer, composer, conductor, performing ensemble, etc.) that's the most relevant to your argument as the "author" of the recording.
     
    • For example: You may be working with a recording that features a single performer playing or singing pieces by different composers. In a discussion of a particular piece, you may want to include a footnote that points to an individual track and list the COMPOSER as the author. But - in your bibliography, cite the recording as a whole. In that case, format a bibliography entry for the entire recording, and list the PERFORMER as the author.
       
  • Always include the format (CD, streaming audio, LP, etc.) of the recording you're citing in your footnotes and bibliography entries.
     
  • Citations for recordings do not include the place of publication.

Streaming audio (Libraries databases like Naxos Music Library, tracks streamed through Spotify, etc.)

Streaming audio footnotes:

Footnote template: Citing a recording as a whole 35. Composer First Name Last Name, Recording Title, Performer/Group/Conductor Name(s), recorded Month Day, Year if Applicable, Record Label Name # if Applicable, Release Year, streaming audio, accessed Access Date, Database Name.  Citing an individual track: Composer as author 7. Composer First Name Last Name, “Track Title,” on Recording Title, Performer/Group/Conductor Name(s), recorded Month Day, Year, Record Label Name # if Applicable, Release Year, streaming audio, accessed Access Date, Database Name.  Citing an individual track: Conductor/performer as author 7. Performer/Group/Conductor Name, “Track Title,” by Composer First Name Last Name, on Recording Title, Additional Performer/Group/Conductor Name(s) if Applicable, recorded Month Day, Year if Applicable, Record Label Name # if Applicable, Release Year, streaming audio, accessed Access Date, Database Name.

Example of a real footnote: Citing a recording as a whole 35. Franz Joseph Haydn, HAYDN, J.: Trumpet Concerto, Hob.VIIe:1 / Horn Concerto No. 1 / Keyboard Concerto, Hob.XVIII:1, the Academy of Ancient Music, cond. Christopher Hogwood, Decca 417 610-2, 2014, streaming audio, accessed March 15, 2019, Naxos Music Library.  Citing an individual track: Composer as author 7. William Schuman, “Chester,” on Brooklyn Bridge, University of Michigan Symphony Band, cond. Michael Haithcock, 2005, streaming audio, accessed October 17, 2020, Spotify.  Citing an individual track: Conductor/performer as author 7. Michael Haithcock, cond., “Chester,” by William Schuman, on Brooklyn Bridge, University of Michigan Symphony Band, 2005, streaming audio, accessed October 17, 2020, Spotify.

 

Streaming audio bibliography entries:

Bibliography entry template:  Citing a recording as a whole Composer Last Name, First Name. Recording Title. Performer/Group/Conductor Name(s). Recorded Month Day, Year if Applicable. Record Label Name # if Applicable, Release Year, streaming audio. Accessed Access Date. Database Name.  Citing an individual track: Composer as author Composer Last Name, First Name. “Track Title.” On Recording Title. Performer/Group/Conductor Name(s). Recorded Month Day, Year if Applicable. Record Label Name # if Applicable, Release Year, streaming audio. Accessed Access Date. Database Name.  Citing an individual track: Conductor/performer as author Performer/Conductor Last Name, First Name or Group Name as Normal. “Track Title,” by Composer First  Name Last Name. On Recording Title. Additional Performer/Group/Conductor Name(s) if Applicable. Recorded Month Day, Year if Applicable. Record Label Name # if Applicable, Release Year, streaming audio. Accessed Access Date. Database Name.

Example of a real bibliography entry: Citing a recording as a whole Haydn, Franz Joseph. HAYDN, J.: Trumpet Concerto, Hob.VIIe:1 / Horn Concerto No. 1 / Keyboard Concerto, Hob.XVIII:1. The Academy of Ancient Music, Christopher Hogwood, conductor. Decca 417 610-2, 2014, streaming audio. Accessed March 15, 2019. Naxos Music Library.  Citing an individual track: Composer as author Schuman, William. “Chester.” On Brooklyn Bridge. University of Michigan Symphony Band, Michael Haithcock, conductor. 2005, streaming audio. Accessed October 17, 2020. Spotify.  Citing an individual track: Conductor/performer as author Haithcock, Michael, conductor. “Chester,” by William Schuman. On Brooklyn Bridge. University of Michigan Symphony Band. 2005, streaming audio. Accessed October 17, 2020. Spotify.

Physical media (CDs, LP records, cassettes)

Physical recordings footnotes:

Footnote template:  Citing a recording as a whole 9. Composer First Name Last Name, Recording Title, Performer/Group/Conductor Name(s), recorded Month Day, Year if applicable, Record Label Name # if Applicable, Release Year, Recording Format.  Citing an individual track: Composer as author 45. Composer First Name Last Name, “Track Title,” on Recording Title, Performer/Group/Conductor Name(s), recorded Month Day, Year if Applicable, Record Label Name # if Applicable, Release Year, Recording Format.  Citing an individual track: Conductor/performer as author 45. Performer/Group/Conductor Name, “Track Title,” by Composer First Name Last Name, on Recording Title, Additional Performer/Group/Conductor Name(s) if Applicable, recorded Month Day, Year if applicable, Record Label Name # if Applicable, Release Year, Recording Format.

Example of a real footnote: Citing a recording as a whole 9. W.A. Mozart, The Complete Mozart Symphonies, The English Consort, cond. Trevor Pinnock, recorded 1993-1995, Archiv Produktion 471 666-2, 2002, CD.  Citing an individual track: Composer as author 45. Tōru Takemitsu, “Voice for Solo Flutist,” on Sound & Repercussion: New Music for Solo Flute, Linda Wetherill, flute, Furious Artisans FACD6804, 2000, CD.   Citing an individual track: Conductor/performer as author 45. Linda Wetherill, flute, “Voice for Solo Flutist,” by Tōru Takemitsu, on Sound & Repercussion: New Music for Solo Flute, Furious Artisans FACD6804, 2000, CD.



Physical recordings bibliography entries:

Bibliography entry template:  Citing a recording as a whole Composer Last Name, First Name. Recording Title. Performer/Group/Conductor Name(s). 	Recorded Month Day, Year if Applicable. Record Label Name #, Release Year. Recording Format.   Citing an individual track: Composer as author Composer Last Name, First Name. “Track Title.” On Recording Title. Performer/Group/Conductor Name(s).  	Recorded Month Day, Year if Applicable. Record Label Name #, Release Year. Recording Format.  Citing an individual track: Conductor/performer as author Performer/Conductor Last Name, First Name or Group Name as Normal. “Track Title,” by Composer First  	Name Last Name. On Recording Title. Additional Performer/Group/Conductor Name(s) if Applicable. 	Recorded Month Day, Year if Applicable. Record Label Name #, Release Year. Recording Format.

Example of a real bibliography entry:  Citing a recording as a whole Mozart, W.A. The Complete Mozart Symphonies. The English Consort, Trevor Pinnock, conductor. Recorded 1993-1995. Archiv Produktion 471 666-2, 2002. 11 CDs.  Citing an individual track: Composer as author Takemitsu, Tōru. “Voice for Solo Flutist.” On Sound & Repercussion: New Music for Solo Flute. Linda Wetherill, flute. Furious Artisans FACD6804, 2000. CD.   Citing an individual track: Conductor/performer as author Wetherill, Linda, flute, “Voice for Solo Flutist,” by Tōru Takemitsu. On Sound & Repercussion: New Music for Solo Flute. Furious Artisans FACD6804, 2000. CD.

Last Updated: May 12, 2021 4:04 PM