Style manuals, citation guides

Writing Gudes


Internet Resources  

  • Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation 
    • This popular book is an indispensable and entertaining guide for writers, proofreaders, editors, managers, clerical staff, teachers, and students. Use this site to find the answers to your questions concerning proper English grammar and punctuation.
  • Deadwood Phrases 
  •  Elements of Style Online 
    • The electronic version of the classic work by William Strunk, Jr. that includes rules of grammar and usage, principles of composition, and commonly misused and misspelled words.
  •  Grammar, punctuation, and capitalization: a handbook for technical writers and editors. 
    • Mary K. McCaskill, Langley Research Center.
  • Guide to Grammar & Writing 
    • An online textbook on basic writing sponsored by the Capital Community College Foundation. Developed by Dr. Charles Darling.
  • Harvard Guide to Using Sources 
    • From the Expository Writing Program. Covers integrating sources into a paper; misuse of sources and when/when not to cite.
  • How to publish in top journals 
    • This brief manual provides useful suggestions for today's authors. By Kwan Choi, Editor, RIE.
  • How To Write A paper in Scientific Journal Style and Format 
    • Department of Biology, Bates College

      Tutorial on writing scientific journal articles.

  •  Internet Grammar of English 
    • An online course in English grammar.
  •  Mayfield Handbook of Technical & Scientific Writing 
    • Authors: Leslie C. Perelman, Edward Barrett, and James Paradis ; ESL Consultant: Erika Mitchell

      The Web-based version of The Mayfield Handbook of Scientific and Technical Writing is the result of more than ten years of collaborative development at MIT. The Handbook is the first hypertextual reference work designed specifically for technical and scientific writing. MIT authors Leslie Perelman, James Paradis, and Edward Barrett offer information and advice on grammar and usage, strategies for planning and producing documents, and common document formats and citation styles.

  • Nature Masterclasses: Training in Scientific Writing and Publishing 
    • Online courses, workshops and webinars delivered by Nature Research journal editors.

      The online classes are fee-based, but there is a selection of freely available resources that are accessible by registering for a free class account.

      Topics covered include: What Makes a Great Paper? ; Elements of Writing Style ; Data Management and Understanding Peer Review

  •  Online Grammar Handbook  
    • "21 chapters of web links to writing, grammar, punctuation & research inclucing links to arguments, literature & sample student papers of many types."
  • Primary, secondary, and tertiary sources in the health sciences 
  • Publish, Not Perish: the Art & Craft of Publishing In Scholarly Journals 
    • This tutorial was created through a collaborative effort of the libraries of the University of Colorado. It focuses on publishing in scholarly journals. In this course you will learn to:
      • Describe the role of scholarly publishing in an academic career
      • List the essential steps of planning and writing a scholarly paper.
      • Develop a personal publication plan
      • Compare and contrast the different publishing models currently in use
      • Describe the types of articles you can write
      • List the pros and cons of collaborative authoring
      • Describe the tools and resources a scholarly writer needs to have on hand
      • This tutorial was created through a collaborative effort of the libraries of the University of Colorado. It focuses on publishing
  • Publishing Your Research 101 
    • The Publishing Your Research 101 video series helps authors and reviewers understand how to get a manuscript accepted, respond to reviewer comments, navigate ethical considerations, and improve their manuscript submission process experience.

      Based on American Chemical Society (ACS)on Campus' interactive sessions, the video series includes interviews with prominent authors and editors of ACS journals who provide insights and answers from their own perspectives, and the perspectives of their journals.

      • Episode 1 - How to Write a Paper to Communicate Your Research
      • Episode 2 - Writing Your Cover Letter
      • Episode 3 - Selecting Peers to Suggest as Reviewers
      • Episode 4 - Submitting Your Manuscript Using the ACS Paragon Plus Environment
      • Episode 5 - Ethical Considerations for Authors and Reviewers
      • Episode 6 - The Review Process for Authors and Reviewers
      • Episode 7 - Open Access and ACS AuthorChoice
      • Episode 8 - Tips for English as a Second Language Speakers
      • Episode 9 - The Basics of Copyright and Fair Use
      • Episode 10: My Manuscript Has Been Accepted! Now What?
  • Student Writing Guide: University of Minnesota 
    • Center for Writing.

      -Reading, research & writing strategies; - U Writing requirements; - Writing resources & more ...

      Revised ed., 2010

  • The Unofficial guide for authors (or how to produce research articles worth citing) 
    • Guide by Tomislav Hengl & Mike Gould (2006). Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

      Freely downloadable guide that covers in 54 pages all aspects of scientific writing.

  •  Writing and presenting your thesis or dissertation 
    • Guide by S. Joseph Levine, Michigan State University
  • Writing Guides  
    • From Colorado State University. Covers the writing process, types of documents, researching sources and using sources.

Checklists and Other Tools

CONSORT: Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials 

The main product of CONSORT is the CONSORT Statement, which is an evidence-based, minimum set of recommendations for reporting randomized trials. It offers a standard way for authors to prepare reports of trial findings, facilitating their complete and transparent reporting, and aiding their critical appraisal and interpretation.

The CONSORT Statement comprises a 25-item checklist and a flow diagram. The checklist items focus on reporting how the trial was designed, analyzed, and interpreted; the flow diagram displays the progress of all participants through the trial. The CONSORT "Explanation and Elaboration" document explains and illustrates the principles underlying the CONSORT Statement. We strongly recommend that it is used in conjunction with the CONSORT Statement. In addition, extensions of the CONSORT Statement have been developed to give additional guidance for RCTs with specific designs, data and interventions.

  • CHEERS: Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards 
    • The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance.
  • MOOSE Checklist  
  • The PRISMA Statement: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 
    • The aim of the PRISMA Statement is to help authors report a wide array of systematic reviews to assess the benefits and harms of a health care intervention. PRISMA focuses on ways in which authors can ensure the transparent and complete reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
  •  SQUIRE: Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence  
    • SQUIRE stands for Standards for QUality Improvement Reporting Excellence. The SQUIRE guidelines provide a framework for reporting new knowledge about how to improve healthcare. They are intended for reports that describe system level work to improve the quality, safety, and value of healthcare.
  • STARD Initiative 
    • Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD)
    • "STROBE stands for an international, collaborative initiative of epidemiologists, methodologists, statisticians, researchers and editors involved in the conduct and dissemination of observational studies, with the common aim of STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology." 

Style Manuals -- Health Sciences

ACS Style (American Chemical Society)  

AMA Style (American Medical Association)  

  • Books  
    • AMA manual of style: a guide for authors and editors 
      • Sect. 1. Preparing an article for publication. Types of articles -- Manuscript preparation -- References -- Visual presentation of data -- Ethical and legal considerations -- Editorial assessment and processing -- Sect. 2. Grammar -- Punctuation -- Plurals -- Capitalization -- Correct and preferred usage -- Non-english words, phrases, and accent marks -- Medical indexes -- Sect. 3. Terminology. Abbreviations -- Nomenclature -- Eponyms -- Greek letters --Sect. 4. Measurement and Quantitation. Units of measure -- Numbers and percentages -- Study design and statistics -- Mathematical composition -- Sect. 5. Technical information. Typography -- Manuscript editing and proofreading -- Glossary of publishing terms -- Resources. Rev. ed. of: American Medical Association manual of style. 9th ed. c1998.
        • Location(s): TC Bio-Medical Library Reference WZ345 A511 2007
  • Internet Resources  

APA Style (American Psychological Association)  

  •  Books  
    • Concise rules of APA style 
      1. Concise and bias-free writing -- 2. Punctuation, spelling, and capitalization -- 3. Italicizing and abbreviating -- 4. Numbers, metrication, and statistics -- 5. Tables -- 6. Figures -- 7. Footnotes and appendixes -- 8. Quotations, reference citations in text, and reference list -- 9. Reference examples.
    •  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 
      • The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, educators, and professionals in psychology, sociology, business, economics, nursing, social work, and justice administration.
    • Writing with style: APA style made easy 
      • Introduction: the laypeople and you -- Some generalizations about how psychologists write -- Preparing the introduction section and the literature review paper -- Preparing the method section -- Preparing the results section -- Preparing the discussion section -- Preparing the abstract -- Preparing the references section -- Preparing a title page and formatting your manuscript -- Grooming tips for psychology papers -- Preparing a presentation -- Wrapping it up.
  • Internet Resources   

CSE Style (Council of Science Editors)  

Harvard Style  

NLM Style (National Library of Medicine)  

  • Books  
  • Internet Resources  
    •  Citing Medicine: the NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 
      • Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 - [updated 2011 Sep 15]

        "Citing Medicine gives information on constructing citations at three levels:

        • 1. Diagrammed Citation - Many people need to format a non-complex citation and want to know how to format a citation, without learning why it should be structured that way. The picture of the sample citation and the broad guidelines (what we're calling the Introduction) will be enough for many people in this group.
        • 2. General Rules and Examples - A smaller number of people will need to view the General Rules and Examples sections to get more information. They either will have a specific problem to solve or their work requires them to build a general knowledge of citation that they can later apply to specific cases. For this group we lay out why citations are structured the way they are and show them what types of citations exist (Examples) and what special, difficult cases they may encounter (Specific Rules).
        • 3. Specific Rules - A yet smaller number of people will need to enter the Specific Rules section to solve a specific problem, such as handling non-English citations.

Vancouver Style (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors)  

Data Citation Guides

  • Data Citation 
    Informational page from USGS on the importance of citing data with recommended best practices.

Other Citation Guides & Styles

  • Citing OMIM 
    • How to cite Onine Mendelian Inheritance in Man references.

Instructions for Authors

  • Instructions to Authors in the Health Sciences. 
    • These pages provide links to Web sites which provide instructions to authors for over 3,500 journals in the health and life sciences. All links are to "primary sources" - that is, to publishers and organizations with editorial responsibilities for the titles. Maintained by the Raymon H. Mulford Library, Medical College of Ohio.
    • Publisher copyright policies and self-archiving.

      This site can be used to find a summary of permissions that are normally given as part of each publisher's copyright transfer agreement. Searchable by journal title or publisher name. Can also be browsed by RoMEO colors, which differentiate between different archiving policies.

      • white: archiving not formally supported
      • yellow: can archive pre-print
      • blue: can archive post-print
      • green: can archive pre-print and post-print
  • University of Minnesota: Authorship 

Peer Review

  •  How to Peer Review a Manuscript 
    • Chapter 12 in: Peer Review in Health Sciences

      Moher D, Jadad AR. How to peer review a manuscript (PDF - 51 KB). In Godlee F, Jefferson T, editors. Peer review in health sciences. Second edition. London: BMJ Books, 2003:183-90.

  • Peer Review: An Introduction and Guide 
    • Peer Review: An Introduction and Guide (by Mark Ware, published by the Publishing Research Consortium, September 2013) offers a readable overview of the processes used in peer review that assesses its strengths and limitations and looks at alternative approaches that are now being developed and trialled. Ware discusses why, although inevitably imperfect, peer review remains a vital element of scholarship and the means by which the quality benchmark that distinguishes scholarly discourse is established. The Guide describes the elements that make up the peer review process, the workflows and tracking systems, the issues around publication ethics, and the developments in post-publication review and altmetrics that may represent the direction peer review will take in the future.
  • Peer Review: The Nuts and Bolts 
    • Produced with the help of over 40 early career researchers, editors, journalist and grant body representatives, this guide will help early career researchers understand how the peer review process works, some of the limitations of peer review and the role of peer review in society.

      Updated 2012

  • Peer Review Quick Guide: Detecting Common Mistakes & Considering Dilemmas in Peer Review
    • Faculty Development and Instructional Design Center Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115, U.S.A.

Quick Guide is intended for self-paced learning for novice researchers participating in a peer review of research proposals and scientific articles submitted for publication. The objectives of this Quick Guide are to:

  • Increase awareness of common mistakes and dilemmas that novice peer reviewers can face while reviewing either research proposals or scientific articles.
  • Offer strategies providing constructive criticism to the authors of these works.

Federal Agencies Public Access Policies

NIH Public Access Policy  

  • Bio-Medical Library resource page for NIH Public Access Policy & Compliance.

    Email address for library staff help with public access policy compliance.

Open Access Publishing

  • BioMed Central 
  • BioMed Central is an STM (Science, Technology and Medicine) publisher of 257 peer-reviewed open access journals. The portfolio of journals spans all areas of biology, biomedicine and medicine.

Journal Information

  • DOAJ : Directory of Open Access Journals 
  • Genamics JournalSeek: Medicine 
    • Genamics JournalSeek is the largest completely categorized database of freely available journal information available on the internet. Presently contains 60,458 titles. Journal information includes the description (aims and scope), journal abbreviation, journal homepage link, subject category and ISSN.
  •  ISI Journal Abbreviation Index 
    • Web of Science Journal abbreviation list.
  • JANE: Journal/Author Name Estimator 
    • JANE helps authors find journals to submit articles to, similar papers to cite or helps editors locate potential reviewers.

      From the website: Just enter the title and/or abstract of the paper in the box, and click on 'Find journals', 'Find authors' or 'Find Articles'. Jane will then compare your document to millions of documents in Medline to find the best matching journals, authors or articles.

      JANE first searches for the 50 articles that are most similar to your input. For each of these articles, a similarity score between that article and your input is calculated. The similarity scores of all the articles belonging to a certain journal or author are summed to calculate the confidence score for that journal or author. The results are ranked by confidence score. Created by the Biosemantics Group (

  • List of Serials Indexed for Online Users 
    • National Library of Medicine MEDLINE journal list
  • PubMed Journal Database 
    • Search by title keyword or part of a word. Provides MEDLINE journal abbreviation, complete journal title, publisher and ISSN. Also has link to webpage containing list of PubMed journals that provide links to full text articles (all full-text, not just free full text)
  • SCImago Journal & Country Rank  
    • A portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.). These indicators can be used to assess and analyze scientific domains. This platform takes its name from the SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) indicator, developed by SCImago from the widely known algorithm Google PageRank. This indicator shows the visibility of the journals contained in the Scopus® database from 1996.
  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory 
    • Lists information for over a quarter-million serial records such as newspapers, popular and trade magazines, and academic and scholarly journals. Includes active, ceased, and forthcoming publications. Search by title, subject and more.

Dictionaries / Acronyms / Abbreviations

  • Acronym 
    • Searchable database of more than 317,000 abbreviations and acronyms about computers, technology, telecommunications, and military acronyms and abbreviations


  • Avoiding plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and other questionable writing practices: a guide to ethical writing. 
    • Office of Research Integrity. US Department of Health & Human Services.

      he purpose of this module is to help students, as well as professionals, identify and prevent questionable practices and to develop an awareness of ethical writing. This guide was written by Miguel Roig, PhD, from St. Johns University with funding from ORI.

  • Plagiarism: As Explained By Common Craft 

      While Plagiarism can be intentional, it is more often caused by misunderstanding. Avoiding it means understanding the role of intellectual property and what makes plagiarism wrong. This video teaches:

      • Types of ideas and media that can be plagiarized
      • Steps to avoiding plagiarism
      • A definition of plagiarism
      • Why giving credit to others is necessary
  • Synthesis: Using the Work of Others 
    • Tutorial from the University of Maine at Farmington
  • What is Plagiarism? 
    • From, a free resource sponsored by iParadigms LLC, makers of Turnitin, WriteCheck, and iThenticate.

      Includes tools, resources, videos, how to cite sources and links to helpful sites

Copyright Guidelines

  • Copyright Tools 
    • From the American Library Association's Office for Information Technology
      • Digital Copyright Slider 
        • An interactive tool to help determine whether or not a work is protected by copyright or not. Set the arrow at the correct date and read the information is the windows
      • Section 108 Spinner 
        • Use your mouse to turn the wheel chart to the desired section. Helps determine whether or not a particular reproduction is covered by Section 108
  • Creative Commons 
    • Creative Commons is a nonprofit organization that offers flexible copyright licenses for creative works.
  • Copyright & Fair Use 
    • Prepared by Stanford University Libraries this is a very useful site.
  • Copyright Clearance Center 
    • Here you can get permission to reproduce copyrighted content such as articles and book chapters in your journals, photocopies, coursepacks, library reserves, Web sites, e-mail and more.
  • Copyright Crash Course 
    • The Copyright Crash Course Online Tutorial will help you learn about how ownership of copyrighted materials works, what is fair use and when and how to get permission to use someone else's materials.
  • Copyright Information and Education (U of M Libraries) 
    • The site of the University of Minnesota Libraries' Copyright Information and Education Initiative, which supports an informed and educated University community on matters of copyright and its application in teaching, research, and scholarship. Includes tools such as a Fair Use Analysis Tool and Copyright Decision Map.
  • Copyright: an overview
    • This is a section of a larger main site covering all aspects of the law from the Cornell Law School ( It is from the "Law about. . . " section of the main site.
  • Copyright Permissions Office, U of M  
    • This office, secures permission for copyrighted materials use for instructional or other academic purposes by U of M faculty and staff. Photocopying guidelines are also provided.
  • A Fair(y) Use Tale 
    • YouTube video that uses clips from Disney films to illustrate the concept of "Fair Use."
  • United States Copyright Office 
    • Key publications, including informational circulars; application forms for copyright registration; links to the copyright law and to the homepages of other copyright-related organizations; news of what the Office is doing, including business-process reengineering plans, Congressional testimony and press releases, regulations; a link to online copyright records cataloged since 1978; and much more.
Last Updated: Jun 17, 2019 11:26 AM