Why do I need to cite a source?
Citations indicate which ideas are taken from others and from whom those ideas were taken; in other words, they give credit where credit is due. Citations allow researchers to find, read and comment on each others' sources.
What are Citations? from the University of Minnesota Libraries
If you use, quote, paraphrase, summarize, or otherwise refer to the work of others, you need to cite the source of that information. This will allow the reader to locate the work (e.g. article, book, website, image, film, etc.) to which you are referring and help you avoid plagiarism.
Tutorial: What is a citation manager and when to use one
Tutorial: What is a citation manager and when to use oneUnderstand the benefits of using a citation manager when conducting your research.
Free citation generators
Create one citation at a time using these sites:
- Zoterobib (Recommended)
- DOI Citation Formatter
Citation database features
Many databases (e.g., Academic Search Premier, search on library homepage, and Google Scholar) offer the option of creating your references in common style. Look for this as you save, e-mail or print your references.
Select the cite link in Libraries Search (the icon is a quotation mark).
Select the cite link in Google Scholar (the icon is a quotation mark).
Online guides to common styles
- ACS Style Quick Guide for the most common reference types
- Citation Resources (APA, MLA, Chicago) from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab
- Citation Styles for Research Papers (APA, MLA, Turabian, Chicago, AMA) from Long Island University
- Documentation quick tips (APA, MLA, Chicago, CSE) from Center for Writing at the University of Minnesota
- How do I cite a YouTube or online video? from Berkeley College
- Images: Images Citing guide from the University of Washington
- Music Citation Guide (Chicago Style) from the University of Minnesota Libraries - in addition to music materials like recordings and scores, this guide includes templates and examples for footnotes and bibliography entries for books, articles, dissertations/theses, streaming video, and websites/social media!
- Other styles (ACS, IEEE, ASA, etc.) are available from Concordia University Libraries
Citation management tools
Tools like Zotero and EndNote help you save and organize your PDFs and references, create bibliographies, and create in-text citations with word-processing software like Microsoft Word or Google docs in hundreds of styles.
Print and online style manuals
- MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (Wilson Library)
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Health Sciences, Magrath, Walter, Wilson)
- Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (Natural Resources, Walter, Wilson)
- A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago style for Students and Researchers (Turabian) (Health Sciences, Law, Music, Walter, Wilson)
Creating annotated bibliographies
An annotated bibliography, in addition to all of the citation information for a source, also includes descriptive and critical information about the source. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance and quality of the sources.